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Death of Gaddafi/The National Transitional Council's bloody path

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  DEATH OF GADDAFI/THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL COUNCIL'S  BLOODY PATH       ''Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. ''   Article 10, Universal Declaration of Human Rights   http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Language.aspx?LangID=eng       ''''It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat ''   Article 2, Basic rules of International Humanitarian Law in armed conflicts   http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm   The prohibition on executions without trial [summary executions] AND the obligation to treat prisoners of war humanely is confirmed by article 3, 3th Geneva Convention     http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/375?OpenDocument     INTRODUCTION:   After 42 years the dictatorship of Gaddafi has come to an end However, the new rulers don't deserve any benefit of the doubt They didn't trust on the strength of the Libyan people and made alliance with the NATO which only serve Western interests With a pro Western regime, the Libyan people can forget any real independence and social advancement Regarding human rights they made a bloody beginning with the apparent extrajudicial execution of Gaddafi and his son Mutassim Prisoners have been tortured and humiliated There are vehement racist attacks on African migrant workers and black Libyans When the situation stays this and those responsible for torture and violence don't face prosecution, the former Gaddafi dictatorship will be followed by a next one       Dear Editor and readers,   Friday 21 october the world learnt, that former president Muammar Gaddafi, who had ruled Libya for 42 years, had died [1] Although the new rulers, the National Transitial Council, claimed, that Gaddafi was killed in a crossfire, soon news was spread, that he was extrajudicially executed, which was confirmed by video's [2] The video images were barbaric and the public exposure of the bodies of Gaddafi, his son  Mutassim and his Defence minister Abu Bakr Younis, were a shame and a disgrace and against International Humanitarian Law  And moreover a huge violation of Islamic burial rules, which commands a burial within a day. The bodies were disposed to the public for four days! [3] But that is not all   When Gaddafi were alive when imprisoned and therefore was a POW [prisoner of war], his execution was a war crime According to International Humanitarian Law, article 2 and the 3th Geneva Convention [regarding the treatment of prisoners of war], article 3,  it is strictly forbidden to kill someone, who has surrendered Also it is an international obligation to treat prisoners of war humanely [4]   Moreover, in International Law any human being has a right to a fair and independent trial In the case of Gaddafi it was a trial before the International Criminal Court, which had ordered arrest warrants against him, his son Saif al-Islam and the Intelligence chief Abdullah al-Sanussi  His son Saif al-Islam has been arrested by the National Transitional Council at 19 november Two days later, Gaddafi's Intelligence Chief, Abdullah al-Sanussi, were also arrested Both men are wanted by the ICC on charges of crimes against humanity for their roles in attacks on civilians, including peaceful demonstrators, in Tripoli, Benghazi, Misrata, and other Libyan cities and towns after the start of anti-government protests in eastern Libya on February 15 [5]   The call for an investigation after the circumstances of the death of Gaddafi sounded from the very beginning from the side of the UN and human rights organisations Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch [6] Autopsy showed, that he is killed by a shot in the head and the National Transitional Council has not only ordered an investigation, but also declared, that those responsible for the death of Gaddafi, will be prosecuted [7]   His son Mutassim died under the same suspect circumstances Video images show, that he was still alive, when imprisoned He was interrogated and a time later he was shot [8]   Guess who is responsible.....................     GADDAFI IS DEAD THE DEAD CAN'T TALK   The barbaric executions of Gaddafi and his son at the hands of the rebels don't come as a suprise From the beginning of the uprise, the rebels have committed warcrimes and human rights violations like the mistreatment and humiliation of prisoners and racist attacks on African migrant workers and black Libyans, on the pretext, that they were ''mercenaries'' of Gaddafi This was reported by Human Rights and Amnesty International [9] After the fall of Sirte Human Rights Watch team found the dead bodies of 53 pro Gaddafi fighters in a hotel Apparently they were extrajudicially killed [10]     GADDAFI'S DEATH A RELIEF TO THE WEST THE DEAD CAN'T TALK     ''If he had been brought to trial for his crimes he would have been able to mention all the help he received from Western intelligence services who rendered opponents to his torture chambers or the London School of Economics that helped rehabilitate his image and that of his family's regime.''     http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26466     The big question is, whether the extrajudicial execution of Gaddafi was pure revenge or  to silence him For Gaddafi knew too much   As the former Western allies of Gaddafi [since 11 september 2001], as those members of the National Transitional Council, who had belonged to the former Gaddafi regime would  have been seriously embarrassed, when Gaddafi had been brought for the International Criminal Court [11]   For except the dirty deal he and his former friend, the ex Italian prime minister Berlusconi had closed in order to prevent refugees to come to Europe [12], there were more shady things A number of Western States, especially the US and Great Britain deported real or alleged terrorsuspects to Libya by means of rendition flghts and in Libya they were tortured. Human Rights Watch has systematically reported this and protested against those practices [13] As well as the US and British Intelligence Services cooperated closely with Gaddafi and informed him about the Libyan opposition [14] A number of members of the National Transitional Council are former high officials of the Gaddafi regime. They would not be happy either with a living Gaddafi, who could tell about their dirty practices [15]   The Gaddafi deals with the Western rulers and the ex ties of some members of the NTC [National Transitional Council] are no secret Otherwise I could not write about it However, there are always certain secret details, which must be secret to all the parties involved. Undoubtedly Gaddafi would have revealed them if he were brought for the ICC   But dead men can't talk So Gaddafi took al his secrets to his grave in the desert.........[16]     SINCE 11 SEPTEMBER 2001 GADDAFI AS AN ALLY IN THE ''WAR ON TERROR'' GADDAFI'S DIRTY DEALS WITH THE WEST     There were a lot of things the West would rather not seen revealed, when Gaddafi brought to trial. Since 11 september 2001, Gaddafi, who was a yearlong enemy of the US because of his real or alleged ties with ''terrorism'' [17], had  offered himself to the West as an ally in the socalled ''war on terror''   Consequences of that new ''friendship'' were the close tie with former colonial power Italy Gaddafi made a dirty deal with former prime minister Berlusconi to prevent refugees to come to Europe [18] So Gaddafi became EU's strong man, protecting Fortress Europe [19] US and European countries like Great Britain could make a use of Gaddafi's torturerooms by deporting real or alleged terrorsuspects to Libya on rendition flights Often those prisoners were first tortured by the CIA [20]   Understandably some members of the National Transitional Council [at first high members of the Gaddafi regime] don't want their acts to be exposed either [21]   CHARACTER OF THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL COUNCIL   ''The former rebels form a heterogeneous group of strongly diverting political and ethnic origins. Various former Qadhafi officials joined the opposition either out of opportunism or in search of power conservation. [22] But also Islamist factions play a role in the former rebels For example, the  leader of the Military Council in Tripoli is Abdelhakim Belhadj, an Afghanistan veteran and leader of the Al Qaida linked LIFG (Libyan Islamic Fighters Group). [23] The leader of the Cynically enough Belhadj was extradited to Libya by the CIA in 2004, and was then tortured before he was released by an amnesty measure in 2010 [24]   The uprising was of course legitimate as a resistance against the 42 years bloody dictatorship of the Gaddafi regime However, the resistance was soon captured by former Gaddafi high officials, who only wanted a regime change and despite resistance of other rebel factions appealed to Western military support [25] Any authentic resistance died, since Western interests were at stake now   GADDAFI AND THE WEST THE FAIRY TALE OF THE ALTRUISTIC NATO SUPPORT   Writer of this article and others have mentioned from the beginning, that the NATO help had nothing to do with real concern for the Libyan people, but stems purely from economic and neo colonial hegenomistic interests [26] We have emphasized, that the Libyan resistance should rely on own strength [27]   Altruistic Western help is a fairy tale, bought by naive people, but the Western/ NATO history tells a whole different story. Take for example the NATO bombings in the Kosovo war, with many civilian death and as result of the war and the ethnic cleansings of 200 000 Serbs and Roma which have been bagatellised by the West [28]   Two of NATO coutries, the US and Great Britain, which fullfilled the role of socalled ''benefactors'' are responsible for the military attacks and occupations of Afghanistan and Iraq, which caused thousands of civilian deaths by the use of clusterboms and munitions [29] The idea, that in Libya it would go otherwise is pure nonsense and a bad fairy tale for children The death of many Libyan civilians, caused by NATO bombings proved that [30] There are always naive souls, who believe in the sudden ''goodness'' of the West. In this case, their ranks were joined by socalled leftist progessive persons, who should have known better [31] They were wrong, as the horrible developements in Libya proved     But what exactly were the Western motives to get rid of Gaddafi?   GADDAFI AND THE WEST WESTERN MOTIVES FOR A REGIME CHANGE   Why the West wanted a regime change in Libya, while Gaddafi was doing the dirty work as a ''trusted'' ally and the oildeals were satisfactory? [32]   Of course he WAS reliable, but in the eyes of the West he stayed an unpredictable leader. By supporting the rebellion against him, more reliable pro Western figures could be brought to power That was the West's way to control the Arab spring better and to prevent fundamental changes, at least in Libya. There were economic interests to protect   NATO SUPPORT COMES WITH A PRIZE   The West had its reason to promote a regime change That's an explanation why the peace proposals of the AU [African Union] and the Venezuelan president Chavez [accepted by the Gaddafi regime], have been rejected by the NATO and the rebels [33]   But for Western help is a prize to be paid and the prize is bitter for the Libyan people, who didn't ask for this intervention The West certainly is no friend of the Libyans and only serve its own interests   However, the rebels, who thank their power to the NATO help, gladly pay the prize, guaranteeing profitable oilcontracts   HELP NATO AFTER GARANTEEING THE OILCONTRACTS   ''The West doesn’t have any altruistic aims. It wants to secure oil and business contracts under any new regime and ensure that its economic power in the region is unthreatened. ''     http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24186     This quote reveals excellently the NATO political and military role By the ''successful'' NATO military intervention, the prize for the rebels is controlling the country But not after the promise, that the Western oil deals are guaranteed THIS WAS THE CONDITION UNDER WHICH NATO HELP WAS GIVEN [34]   With the humanitarian card [Responsibility to protect, the ''good'' West against the ''evil'' Gaddafi] the NATO and its gang sold the military intervention to the world   But as always, hegemonistic and economical interests were the real reason       NATO INTERVENTION IN LIBYA   It is obvious, that Gaddafi has led a dictatorship, which is responsible for many human rights violations As well during his reign as the uprising of the rebels [35] But also the NATO ''liberators'' and the rebels have blood on their hands     THE BLOODY HANDS OF THE NATO     ''Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants in order to

spare civilian population and property. Neither the civilian population as such nor civilian persons shall be the

object of attack. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives.''

 

Article 7, Internationaal Humanitarian Law

 

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm

 

 

Eager to overthrow the Gaddafi regime, NATO bombed military targets without

any consideration with nearby civilian goals.

Many military targets are located in the vicinity of residential areas.

Especially residential area Bab al-Aziziya, where Gaddafi lived, was target again and again.

According to the Bishop of Tripoli many civilians were killed [36]

                                                                                                      Bombing military targets, which are in the vicinity of civilian goals [like residential areas] is a great risk, since it is very difficult to protect civilians When civilians are killed or injured anyway, it is a warcrime, since according International Humanitarian Law a strict distinction must be made between combatants [military and fighters] and non-combatants [civilians] [37]   Therefore it is of great importance, that the Public Procesutor of the ICC, Moreno Ocampo, has announced to investigate real or alleged NATO and rebel warcrimes [38]     THE REBEL ''LIBERATORS'' OF LIBYA HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND WARCRIMES MISTREATMENTS/EXECUTIONS OF PRISONERS   Despite the allegations of the [former] rebels, to fight for ''democracy'', ''justice'' and to uphold human rights, they have a very poor human rights record concerning their warfare and treatment of prisoners [of war].   At least hundred gangs of rebelmilitia, from Misrata and the Nasufa Mountains [39] have made themselves guilty of arbitrary arrests, mistreatments and torture of imprisoned pro Gaddafi fighters Other atrocities were extrajudicial executions, rapes, lootings and burnings of houses, belonging to real or alleged Gaddafi supporters It concerns thousands of prisoners, at least 2500 held in Tripoli and 1100 in Misrata. According to Amnesty International also children are detained.   Human Rights Watch team found the bodies of 53 killed apparent Gaddafi supporters at an abandoned hotel in Sirte, who apparently were extrajudicially executed Ssome had their hands bound behind their backs when they were shot, according to Mr Peter Bouckaert, emergencies director at Human Rights Watch, who investigated the killings [40]   REBELS WAR CRIMES FOR WHAT THE WEST TURNS A BLIND EYE RACIST ATTACKS ON AFRICAN MIGRANTS AND BLACK LIBYANS     ''One hospitalized Tawergha told Human Rights Watch how he was shot in the side and leg and abandoned to die near Hun: “They left us at the edge of the road, put a blanket over us and then started swearing, ‘You are dogs, hope you die.’”   Source:   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/28/murder-brigades-misrata     The human rights violations and warcrimes, which the rebels committed are horrible and in that the difference between them and the pro Gaddafi troops is not so big HOWEVER, STILL MORE DANGEROUS IS THE RACIST CHARACTER OF THE REBEL CRIMES   For African migrant workers from countries like Chad, Sudan and Mali, as well black Libyans [descendents of former black slaves] have been tortured, humiliated, raped and extrajudicially executed under the pretext, that they were ''mercenaries'' of Gaddafi For those allegations hardly any serious evidence has been found [41]]   BUT EVEN IF IT WERE SO, FACT STAYS, THAT PEOPLE ARE BEING ARRESTED, PERSECUTED, HUMILIATED, TORTURED AND EXTRAJUDICIALLY EXECUTED BECAUSE OF THE COLOUR OF THEIR SKIN [42]     ETHNIC CLEANSINGS:   Rebels have also committed ethnic cleansings A horrifying example is the town of Tawergha   Due to the terror of Misrata militia brigades [beatings, shootings of unarmed citizens, setting houses aflame, arbitrary arrests, deaths in detention] the entire town [of mainly black citizens] has fled to the Juffra region [South of Misrata]   This was exactly the meaning, since militia commanders have declared that the Tawerghans should never return [43]   In the book of the Misrata militia brigades all citizens of Tawergha are held responsible for real or alleged atrocities of some ''mercenaries''   This terror against black African migrant workers and black Libyans was there since the beginning of the uprising against Gaddafi and is silenced by Western press [44]   Now these atrocities go from bad to worse and can be compared with real pogroms, it is finally noticed by the press [45]   Also the press had a bad responsibility in spreading the myth of the ''black mercenaries'' without substantial evidence Especially Al Jazeera, which has lost its progessive character, was guilty of spreading those dangerous fairy tales [46]   The National Transitional Council has  condemned those atrocities and said to Amnesty International, that it will restore law as soon as possible [47] However, as the official Libyan authorities, the NTC is responsible for the militia atrocities They are obliged to investigate them and bring the abusive members of the militia to Court.   Also the NATO, which played the main part in supporting the rebels and so bringing the NTC to power, bears a big responsibility   IT IS THE OBLIGATION OF THE NTC TO PROTECT ALL INHABITANTS OF LIBYA FROM HARM, REGARDLESS STATUS OR DESCENT' IT'S THE OBLIBATION, UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW, OF THE REBEL MILITIA TO TREAT ALL PRISONERS THEY HAVE UNDER CONTROL, HUMANELY THAT APPLIES ALSO FOR THE NTC, OF COURSE   EPILOGUE   Gaddafi has led a dictatorship and is responsible for a great number of human rights violations and warcrimes [48] However, its not a bagatellisation of his atrocities to mention, that the Libyan people's standard of living is among the top in Africa. Also he supported freedom movements like the ANC, in the time that the West considered it as a terroristic organisation [49]   The struggled resistance against the Gaddafi dictatorship was legitimate and could have become a great succes, but has ended in a great political and humanitarian drama   Politically, since resistance didn't trust on own strength, but on Western intervention, which only serves its own, neocolonialistic interests   A humanitarian debacle, since the rebel militia have used the same atrocities, which made Gaddafi a feared leader, partly because of the presence of former Gaddafi officials Those atrocities also show an ugly racist card, which can cause tension with African countries   Chaos is in the country, since the NTC, which is divided over maintainance of human rights, seems to have little control over a number of militia   Then we still have the rival ethnic groups that could cause conflict in post Qadhafi Libya and we can not rule out that supporters of the former leader will take up armed resistance. [50]   The NTC will be a willing tool for Western hegemony and considering its bloody start, it is to be feared, that the situation will be not much better than under the former Gaddafi regime [51]   The only hope is, that a real resistance will stand up, challenging Western influence and their NTC servants Fighting  for economical independence, social justice and based on Freedom, Brotherhood, Equality and Human Rights for all its inhabitants, regardless status or race   Only then, Libya will  be really free     Kind greetings Astrid Essed Amsterdam The Netherlands             [1]        AL JAZEERA MUAMMAR GADDAFI KILLED AS SIRTE FALLS 21 OCTOBER 2011   http://aljazeera.com/news/africa/2011/10/20111020111520869621.html     THE GUARDIAN GADDAFI KILLED AS SIRTE FALLS 21 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/middle-east-live/2011/oct/20/gaddafi-killed-sirte-falls-live           [2]     WARNING BLOODY PICTURES DAILY MAIL GADDAFI DEAD VIDEO: DICTATOR BEGS FOR LIFE BEFORE SUMMARY EXECUTION   http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2051361/GADDAFI-DEAD-VIDEO-Dictator-begs-life-summary-execution.html     BBC GADDAFI DEATH: THE BLOODY BIRTH OF A NEW LIBYA 22 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15416019     [3]   WARNING BLOODY PICTURES DAILY MAIL GADDAFI DEAD VIDEO: DICTATOR BEGS FOR LIFE BEFORE SUMMARY EXECUTION   http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2051361/GADDAFI-DEAD-VIDEO-Dictator-begs-life-summary-execution.html       EXPOSURE OF GADDAFI'S BODY/FOUR DAYS Not only humiliating, but against Islamic burial rules, that demand, that a dead body must be buried within a day   THE INDEPENDENT LIBYA ENDS PUBLIC SHOWING OF GADDAFI'S BODY 25 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/libya-ends-public-showing-of-gaddafis-body-2375357.htm     REUTERS
LIBYA ENDS PUBLIC SHOWING OF GADDAFI'S BODY
24 OCTOBER 2011
 
http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/10/24/uk-libya-gaddafi-body-idUKTRE79N2GY20111024
 

INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS VIEW ABOUT THE PUBLIC EXPOSURE OF DEAD BODIES   Over the past few days, people with their hands tied have been put on display on vehicles, interrogations of detainees have been filmed by local media, and mortal remains have been exposed to public curiosity...
Our view of these issues is based on the applicable rules of international humanitarian law, for which we endeavour to ensure respect.''     SOURCE:
 
 
INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS
LIBYA: DETAINEES AND THE DEAD MUST BE RESPECTED
27 OCTOBER 2011
 
http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/interview/2011/libya-interview-2011-10-27.htm

 
THE GUARDIAN
GADDAFI BURIED IN SECRET DESERT LOCATION
25 OCTOBER 2011
 
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/25/gaddafi-buried-libya-desert  
  [4]   ARTICLE 3, 3TH GENEVA CONVENTION HUMANE TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF WARAND PROHIBITION TO KILL A PRISONER OF WAR   ''(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely,....... .......................................................... ''To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:
(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;
..................................... .....................................   http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/375?OpenDocument   See also   www.icrc.org     ARTICLE 1 AND 2, BASIC RULES OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW IN ARMED CONFLICTS   1 - Persons hors de combatand those who do not take a direct part in hostilities are entitled to respect for their

lives and their moral and physical integrity. They shall in all circumstances be protected and treated humanely

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

without any adverse distinction.

   

 

 

 2 - It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat.

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

          [5]   HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: Q AND A ON THE ARREST AND SURRENDER OF THE THREE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT SUSPECTS 26 AUGUST 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/26/libya-qa-arrest-and-surrender-three-international-criminal-court-suspects     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL ICC MUST END CONFUSION OVER TRIAL OF GADDAFI 24 NOVEMBER 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/icc-must-end-confusion-over-trial-gaddafi-2011-11     INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT COURSE OF ACTION BEFORE THE ICC FOLLOWING THE ARREST OF THE SUSPECT SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI IN LIBYA 23 NOVEMBER 2011   http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/exeres/48F6B130-EC14-4A51-BC79-1CCF8633E270.htm           THE GUARDIAN SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI CAPTURED IN LYBYA DESERT AS HE TRIES TO FLEE COUNTRY 19 NOVEMBER 2011     http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/19/saif-al-islam-gaddafi-capture-libya     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: SURRENDER SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI TO ICC 19 NOVEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/19/libya-surrender-saif-al-islam-gaddafi-icc     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL LIBYA: TRANSFER SAIF AL-ISLAM TO THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT 19 NOVEMBER 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/libya-transfer-saif-al-islam-international-criminal-2011-11-19       THE GUARDIAN GADDAFI'S INTELLIGENCE CHIEF CAPTURED IN SOUTHERN DISTRICT 20 NOVEMBER 2011   http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/20/gaddafi-son-pretended-camel-herder     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH   LIBYA: REPORTED CAPTURE OF ABDULLAH SANUSSI 20 NOVEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/20/libya-reported-capture-abdullah-sanussi       [6]   CNN UN CALLS FOR GADHAFI DEATH INVESTIGATION 21 OCTOBER 2011   http://edition.cnn.com/2011/10/21/world/africa/libya-main/     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: INVESTIGATE DEATHS OF GADDAFI AND SON 22 OCTOBER 2011   ''However, information obtained by Human Rights Watch, as well as videos and photographs apparently taken that day showing both men alive in the custody of anti-Gaddafi forces, indicate that they might have been executed after being detained.''     SOURCE:   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/22/libya-investigate-deaths-gaddafi-and-son     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL LIBYA URGED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER AL-GADDAFI DEATH WAS A WAR CRIME 21 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/libya-urged-investigate-whether-al-gaddafi-death-was-war-crime-2011-10-21     TIME WORLD AUTOPSY SHOWS GADDAFI KILLED BY SHOT TO HEAD 23 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2097580,00.html     INDIA TODAY MUAMMAR GADDAFI WAS SHOT IN THE HEAD: AUTOPSY 23 OCTOBER 2011   http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/muammar-gaddafi-shot-dead-autopsy/1/157280.html     [7]   TIME WORLD AUTOPSY SHOWS GADDAFI KILLED BY SHOT TO HEAD 23 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2097580,00.html     INDIA TODAY MUAMMAR GADDAFI WAS SHOT IN THE HEAD: AUTOPSY 23 OCTOBER 2011   http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/muammar-gaddafi-shot-dead-autopsy/1/157280.html     THE GUARDIAN LIBYA BOWS TO CALLS FOR INVESTIGATION INTO GADDAFI DEATH 25 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/24/libya-investigation-gaddafi-death     THE GUARDIAN GADDAFI KILLER FACES PROSECUTION, SAYS LIBYAN INTERIM GOVERNMENT 27 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/27/gaddafi-killers-face-prosecution-libya       BBC THE GADDAFI FAMILY TREE   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12531442         [8]   HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: INVESTIGATE DEATHS OF GADDAFI AND SON 22 OCTOBER 2011   ''However, information obtained by Human Rights Watch, as well as videos and photographs apparently taken that day showing both men alive in the custody of anti-Gaddafi forces, indicate that they might have been executed after being detained.''   SOURCE:   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/22/libya-investigate-deaths-gaddafi-and-son     ''Videos also emerged showing the Colonel’s son Mu’tassim al-Gaddafi, also captured yesterday, lying on a bed in what appears to be a private residence. Wearing a bloodied T-shirt, he bore a neck injury but seemed to be conscious and aware of his surroundings. Later footage showed his lifeless body on a hospital bed. His death should also be independently investigated.''     SOURCE:     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL LIBYA URGED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER AL-GADDAFI DEATH WAS A WAR CRIME 21 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/libya-urged-investigate-whether-al-gaddafi-death-was-war-crime-2011-10-21

    [9]     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: CEASE ARBITRARY ARRESTS, ABUSE OF DETAINEES 30 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/30/libya-cease-arbitrary-arrests-abuse-detainees     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: STOP ARBITRARY ARRESTS OF BLACK AFRICANS 4 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/04/libya-stop-arbitrary-arrests-black-africans     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST IN LIBYA 7 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-reprisals-and-arbitrary-arrest-libya-2011-09-07             [10]     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS 24 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-supporters     [11]       ''If he had been brought to trial for his crimes he would have been able to mention all the help he received from Western intelligence services who rendered opponents to his torture chambers or the London School of Economics that helped rehabilitate his image and that of his family's regime.''   SOURCE:     THE SOCIALIST WORKER GADDAFI'S DEATH IS RELIEF FOR WEST 22 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26466     ''"When a person is shot in the head it is obviously done to simply eliminate him under common accord of several parties involved. They include the so-called rebels led by NATO and the alliance members. Three of them were especially interested in keeping Gaddafi’s mouth shut at the Libyan People’s Court that may be judging the Colonel as it was proposed by Medvedev. They are France, the US and the UK. The Hussein trial showed that doing the same thing with Gaddafi could be a dangerous weapon and the Colonel had a lot to say."     SOURCE:     THE VOICE OF RUSSIA GADDAFI'S DEATH - PURE ACCIDENT: THE WEST 22 OCTOBER 2011   http://english.ruvr.ru/2011/10/22/59176785.html         [12]   ''"Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and Mu`ammar al-Gaddafi are building their friendship agreement at the expense of people from other countries whom both regard as expendable," said Bill Frelick, refugee policy director at Human Rights Watch. "It looks less like friendship and more like a dirty deal to enable Italy to dump migrants and asylum seekers on Libya and evade its obligations."     SOURCE:   HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH ITALY/LIBYA: GADDAFI VISIT CELEBRATES DIRTY DEAL 9 JUNE 2009   http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/09/italylibya-gaddafi-visit-celebrates-dirty-deal     [13]     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS 8 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition-details   HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH OFF THE RECORD: US RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENFORCED DISSAPEARANCES IN THE ''WAR ON TERROR''   http://www.hrw.org/legacy/backgrounder/usa/ct0607/ct0607web.pdf   HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA/US: INVESTIGATE DEATH OF FORMER CIA PRISONER 11 MAY 2009   http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/05/11/libyaus-investigate-death-former-cia-prisoner     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH UK: TORTURE A RISK IN LIBYA DEPORTATION ACCORD 17 OCTOBER 2005   http://www.hrw.org/news/2005/10/17/uk-torture-risk-libya-deportation-accord     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH US: STOP DETAINEE'S RETURN TO TORTURE IN LIBYA 14 JUNI 2005   http://www.hrw.org/news/2007/06/14/us-stop-detainee-s-return-torture-libya                 [14]   HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS 8 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition-details   ''However, her reference to widespread concern about wrong judgments is likely to be seized on by critics of the way Britain's intelligence agencies co-operated closely with Gaddafi's regime over the "rendition" of dissidents and terror suspects after the Libyan dictator agreed to abandon his chemical and nuclear weapons programme in 2003.''     SOURCE:   THE GUARDIAN EX MI5 CHIEF'S GADDAFI REGIME RENDITION FEARS 7 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.guardian.co.uk/global/2011/sep/07/mi5-chief-gaddafi-regime-rendition-fears     THE SOCIALIST WORKER BRITAIN AND LIBYA: TORTURED FRIENDS 10 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25973     THE SOCIALIST WORKER LINKING MI 16, BP, LSE AND LIBYA 10 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25975     [15]   ''The former rebels form a heterogeneous group of strongly diverting political and ethnic origins. Various former Qadhafi officials joined the opposition either out of opportunism or in search of power conservation.   SOURCE:     LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time             [16]     BBC MUAMMAR GADDAFI ''BURIED IN DESERT GRAVE AT DAWN'' 25 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15441867        THE DAILY TELEGRAPH LIBYA: GADDAFI BURIED AT DAWN IN SECRET DESERT GRAVE AS LINE IS DRAWN UNDER  42 YEARS RULE 25 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8848866/Libya-Gaddafi-buried-at-dawn-in-secret-desert-grave-as-line-is-drawn-under-42-year-rule.html        BBC THE GADDAFI FAMILY TREE   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12531442   [17]     AL JAZEERA OBITUARY: MUAMMAR GADDAFI 25 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/2011/10/20111020122439605285.html     THE SOCIALIST WORKER THE MYTH OF GADDAFI THE RADICAL 3 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25853       [18]     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH ITALY/LIBYA: GADDAFI VISIT CELEBRATES DIRTY DEAL 9 JUNE 2009   http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/09/italylibya-gaddafi-visit-celebrates-dirty-deal       [19]       FORTRESS EUROPE   http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2006/02/immigrants-dead-at-frontiers-of-europe_16.html   WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT FORTRESS EUROPE INCREASED INTEGRATION OF EU ASYLUM AND IMMIGRATION POLICY   http://struggle.ws/wsm/pamphlets/eu/fortress.html         [20]   SEE NOTE 13     [21]   LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time       THE GADDAFI REGIME IS FIGHTING A NATO BACKED WING OF ITSELF 29 APRIL 2011   http://www.stopwar.org.uk/index.php/middle-east-and-north-africa/465-gaddafi-regime-now-fighting-nato-backed-breakaway-wing-of-itself     [22]   SEE NOTE 21     [23]   LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time          [24]   SEE NOTES 11 TILL 14 SEE ALSO       HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS 8 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition-details     [25]     THE GUARDIAN LIBYA IS UNITED IN POPULAR REVOLUTION-PLEASE DON'T INTERVENE MUHAMMAD MIN LIBYA 1 MARCH 2011   http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/mar/01/libya-revolution-no-fly-zone         [26]     COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUSTUS 2011   http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/     MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH ASTRID ESSED   http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php     LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time       PRESS COMMUNIQUE FROM VREDE [DUTCH WORD FOR PEACE] WZW MILITARY INTERVENTION IN LIBYA? NO THANKS! 10 MARCH 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2090-military-intervention-in-libya-no-thanks     LUDO DE BRABANDER MILITARY INTERVENTION AND LIBYA 9 MARCH 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2089-military-intervention-and-libya   THE SOCIALIST WORKER WESTERN INTERVENTION IN LIBYA MEANS DEVASTATION AND WAR 26 MARCH 2011   http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24282       THE SOCIALIST WORKER LIBYAN REVOLUTIONARIES SPEAK OUT: ''THE WEST'S WARMACHINE WON'T HELP US 5 MARCH 2011   http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24090         [27]   MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH ASTRID ESSED   http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php        THE SOCIALIST WORKER WESTERN INTERVENTION IN LIBYA MEANS DEVASTATION AND WAR 26 MARCH 2011   http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24282     COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUST 2011   http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/     THE SOCIALIST WORKER LIBYAN REVOLUTIONARIES SPEAK OUT: ''THE WEST'S WARMACHINE WON'T HELP US 5 MARCH 2011   http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24090     [28]             WIKIPEDIA THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War#The_NATO_bombing_campaign     SOURCE:   WIKIPEDIA KOSOVO WAR   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War       AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL NATO VIOLATIONS OF THE LAWS OF WAR DURING OPERATION ALLIED FORCE MUST BE INVESTIGATED JUNE 2000   http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/EUR70/025/2000/en/b2d0e225-df0f-11dd-953e-5fb92c895266/eur700252000en.html       ''The Serbian government and a number of international pressure groups (e.g. Amnesty International) claimed that NATO had carried out war crimes during the conflict, notably the bombing of the Serbian TV headquarters in Belgrade on April 23, 1999, where 16 people were killed and 16 more were injured. Sian Jones of Amnesty stated, "The bombing of the headquarters of Serbian state radio and television was a deliberate attack on a civilian object and as such constitutes a war crime".[139]''   SOURCE WIKIPEDIA THE KOSOVO WAR   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War     ''And at the conclusion of the war 200,000 Serbs and Roma were ethnically cleansed by the western-backed Kosovo Liberation Army--creating a virtually monoethnic Kosovo. ''   SOURCE:   THE SOCIALIST REVIEW WHAT WAS IT GOOD FOR? MAY 2003     http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=8435     THE SOCIALIST REVIEW KOSOVO: THE MYTH OF LIBERATION APRIL 2004   http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=8836         [29]     MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH ASTRID ESSED   http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php          [30]     ''A no-fly-zone was installed in the name of protecting civilians that rapidly grew into a bombing campaign which always causes innocent civilian victims. Don't these deaths fall in the category of war crime?''     SOURCE:   LUDO DE BRABANDER RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT 19 MAY 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2121-responsibility-to-protect-     '' A Nato air strike hit a civilian house in Tripoli and killed nine residents, the Libyan regime said yesterday. Nato admitted on Sunday that its weapons destroyed a house in Tripoli in an incident likely to sow new doubts inside the alliance about its mission in Libya.''
SOURCE:   THE DAILY MAIL NATO BOMB ''KILL NINE LIBYAN CIVILIANS'' A STRAY AIRSTRIKE IS BLAMED ON ''SYSTEM FAILURE'' 20 JUNE 2011   http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2005472/Libya-War-Nato-bomb-kills-9-civilians-Tripoli-stray-air-strike-blamed-failure.html       THE WASHINGTON POST NATO CONFIRMS STRIKE HIT WRONG TARGET, KILLING LIBYAN CIVILIANS       http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle-east/nato-says-strike-may-have-killed-libyan-civilians/2011/06/19/AGL7VdbH_story.html     THE GUARDIAN TRIPOLI AIRSTRIKE KILLED 40 CIVILIANS, CLAIMS VATICAN OFFICIAL 31 MARCH 2011   http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/31/tripoli-air-strikes-killed-civilians       BBC LIBYA SAYS NATO AIR RAIDS ''KILLED 700 CIVILIANS'' 31 MAY 2011   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13611132     REUTERS TRIPOLI SAYS NATO STRIKE KILLS DOZENS OF CIVILIANS 9 AUGUST 2011   http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/09/us-libya-idUSTRE76Q76620110809     THE NEW YORK TIMES NATO STRIKES AT LIBYA STATE TV 30 JULY 2011   http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/31/world/africa/31tripoli.html?_r=1     CNN BROTHER OF LIBYA'S INFORMATION MINISTER REPORTED KILLED IN NATO STRIKE 19 AUGUST 2011   http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/08/18/libya.war/     BBC WHAT REALLY HAPPENED IN LIBYA'S ZLITAN 11 AUGUST 2011   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14486170     THE DAILY MAIL BOMBS HIT GADDAFI HOME: NATO STRIKES KILL SON AND THREE GRANDCHILDREN.........BUT TYRANT NARROWLY ESCAPES UNHARMED   1 MAY 2011   http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1382341/Libya-Nato-strikes-kill-Gaddafis-son-grandchildren.html     FAIR LIBYAN DEATHS, MEDIA SILENCE 18 AUGUST 2011   http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=4379     [31]   JUAN LA COLE AN OPEN LETTER TO THE LEFT ON LIBYA 27 MARCH 2011   http://www.juancole.com/2011/03/an-open-letter-to-the-left-on-libya.html       [32]     THE DIRTY WORK GADDAFI DID FOR THE WEST   SEE NOTES 11 TILL 14           [33]   THE INDEPENDENT LIBYAN REBELS REJECT AFRICAN UNION PEACE PLAN 11 APRIL 2011     http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/libyan-rebels-reject-african-union-peace-plan-2266294.htm     THE GUARDIAN LIBYAN REBELS REJECT CHAVEZ MEDIATION OFFER 3 MARCH 2011   http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/03/libyan-rebels-reject-hugo-chavez     COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUSTUS 2011   http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/     BBC WHAT DOES GADDAFI'S DEATH MEAN FOR AFRICA 21 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15392189   [34]            THE NEW YORK TIMES THE SCRAMBLE FOR ACCESS TO LIBYA OIL WEALTH HAS BEGUN 22 AUGUSTUS 2011   http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/business/global/the-scramble-for-access-to-libyas-oil-wealth-begins.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all     FINANCIAL TIMES REBELS VOW TO OPEN UP LIBYA FOR INVESTMENT 15 JUNI 2011   http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/b97dd138-976d-11e0-af13-00144feab49a.html#axzz1bqUQDRC8     THE SOCIALIST WORKER OIL FIRMS HIT THE JACKPOT IN LIBYA 1 OCTOBER 2011     http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26215        LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBIE: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time     [35]   WARNING BLOODY PICTURES     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: EVIDENCE SUGGESTS KHAMIS BRIGADE KILLED 45 DETAINEES 29 AUGUSTUS 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/29/libya-evidence-suggests-khamis-brigade-killed-45-detainees     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: WARRANTS SEND STRONG MESSAGE TO ABUSIVE LEADERS 27 JUNI 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/06/27/libya-warrants-send-strong-message-abusive-leaders       HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: Q&A ON THE ARREST AND SURRENDER OF THE THREE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT SUSPECTS 26 AUGUSTUS 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/26/libya-qa-arrest-and-surrender-three-international-criminal-court-suspects     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: GOVERNMENT USE OF LANDMINES CONFIRMED 30 MAART 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/03/30/libya-government-use-landmines-confirmed     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25         AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL NO PLACE OF SAFETY CIVILIANS IN LIBYA UNDER ATTACK 13 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/027/2011/en/12c2a4e5-6c0e-4c90-b32c-5e95ff133581/mde190272011en.pdf                [36]   NATO WAR CRIMES IN LIBYA   SEE NOTE 30   SEE FURTHER:   EURONEWS TRIPOLI BISHOP SAYS DOZEN OF CIVILIANS KILLED IN WESTERN AIRSTRIKES 31 MARCH 2011   http://www.euronews.net/2011/03/31/tripoli-bishop-says-dozens-of-civilians-killed-in-western-air-strikes/     ''A no-fly-zone was installed in the name of protecting civilians that rapidly grew into a bombing campaign which always causes innocent civilian victims. Don't these deaths fall in the category of war crime? ''     SOURCE:   LUDO DE BRABANDER RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT 19 MAY 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2121-responsibility-to-protect-       SEE ALSO NOTE 30                 [37]     ''Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants in order to

spare civilian population and property. Neither the civilian population as such nor civilian persons shall be the

object of attack. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives.''

 

Artikel 7, Internationaal Humanitair Oorlogsrecht

 

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm

             [38]     RADIO NETHERLANDS WORLDWIDE ICC TO INVESTIGATE NATO'S LIBYAN OPERATION
3 NOVEMBER 2011   http://www.rnw.nl/english/bulletin/icc-investigate-natos-libyan-operation     THE TELEGRAPH LIBYA: NATO TO BE INVESTIGATED BY ICC FOR WARCRIMES 2 NOVEMBER 2011   http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8866007/Libya-Nato-to-be-investigated-by-ICC-for-war-crimes.html         [39]   BACKGROUND] MISRATA AND NASUFA MOUNTAINS   As well in Misrata as in the Nasufa Mountains, indiscriminate attacks of pro Gaddafi troops took place   See       Misrata   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/04/17/libya-indiscriminate-attacks-kill-civilians     Nasufa Mountains   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/05/09/libya-end-indiscriminate-attacks-western-mountain-towns     [40]   WARCRIMES OF THE REBELS TREATMENT OF PRISONERS     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS 24 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-supporters       HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS 24 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-supporters     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA   http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-4368-8537-03f1bb15a051/mde190362011en.pdf     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25       HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: CEASE ARBITRARY ARRESTS, ABUSE OF DETAINEES 30 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/30/libya-cease-arbitrary-arrests-abuse-detainees     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH THE MURDER BRIGADES OF MISRATA 28 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/28/murder-brigades-misrata            [41]     RADIO NETHERLANDS WORLDWIDE HRW: NO MERCENARIES IN EASTERN LIBYA 2 MARCH 2011   http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/hrw-no-mercenaries-eastern-libya-0     ''The “African mercenary” myth, as put into deadly, racist practice, is a fact that paradoxically has been both documented and ignored. Months ago I provided an extensive review of the role of the mainstream media, led by Al Jazeera, as well as the seeding of social media, in creating the African mercenary myth. Among the departures from the norm of vilifying Sub-Saharan Africans and black Libyans that instead documented the abuse of these civilians, were the Los Angeles Times, Human Rights Watch which found no evidence of any mercenaries at all in eastern Libya (totally contradicting the claims presented as truth by Al Arabiya and The Telegraph, among others such as TIME and The Guardian).''   SOURCE   COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUSTUS 2011   http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/           [42]   WARCRIMES OF THE REBELS POGROMS AGAINST AFRICAN MIGRANT WORKERS AND BLACK LIBYANS [DESCENTS OF FORMER SLAVES]                  HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: STOP ARBITRARY ARRESTS OF BLACK AFRICANS 4 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/04/libya-stop-arbitrary-arrests-black-africans       AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA   http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-4368-8537-03f1bb15a051/mde190362011en.pdf       HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: MILITIAS TERRORIZING RESIDENTS OF ''LOYALIST'' TOWN 30 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/30/libya-militias-terrorizing-residents-loyalist-town     '' But black Africans have also been rounded up as alleged mercenaries, on little or no evidence, without being given access to a lawyer. I saw several dozen of them today being driven through Tripoli, hands bound, blindfolded with cloths of Gaddafi green, in the back of trucks with welded-on anti-aircraft cannon and heavy machine guns.''   BBC GADDAFI DEATH: THE BLOODY BIRTH OF A NEW LIBYA 22 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15416019     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST IN LIBYA 7 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-reprisals-and-arbitrary-arrest-libya-2011-09-07         THE ECONOMIST LIBYA'S BLACK REFUGEES CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE 5 MAY 2011   http://www.economist.com/node/18652159?story_id=18652159     FORTRESS EUROPE REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT 19 MAY 2011   http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-rebels.html   One Turkish construction worker told the BBC: "We had 70-80 people from Chad working for our company. They were cut dead with pruning shears and axes, attackers saying: 'You are providing troops for Gaddafi.' The Sudanese were also massacred. We saw it for ourselves."
Libya's new forces for change have simply picked up where the colonel left off his bloodletting.''

SOURCE
BBC
AFRICAN VIEWPOINT: COLONEL'S CONTINENT?
25 FEBRUARY  2011


http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12585395   STR8TALK CHRONICLE
LIBYAN INSURGENTS KILL TWO NIGERIANS
19 MARCH 2011


http://str8talkchronicle.com/?p=13153          AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25   [43]     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: MILITIAS TERRORIZING RESIDENTS OF ''LOYALIST'' TOWN 30 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/30/libya-militias-terrorizing-residents-loyalist-town   [44]     FORTRESS EUROPE REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT 19 MAY 2011   http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-rebels.html   One Turkish construction worker told the BBC: "We had 70-80 people from Chad working for our company. They were cut dead with pruning shears and axes, attackers saying: 'You are providing troops for Gaddafi.' The Sudanese were also massacred. We saw it for ourselves."
Libya's new forces for change have simply picked up where the colonel left off his bloodletting.''

SOURCE:
BBC
AFRICAN VIEWPOINT: COLONEL'S CONTINENT?
25 FEBRUARY 2011


http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12585395   STR8TALK CHRONICLE
LIBYAN INSURGENTS KILL TWO NIGERIANS
19 MARCH 2011


http://str8talkchronicle.com/?p=13153     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST IN LIBYA 7 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-reprisals-and-arbitrary-arrest-libya-2011-09-07     [45]     FORTRESS EUROPE REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT 19 MAY 2011   http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-rebels.html       [46]     ''The “African mercenary” myth, as put into deadly, racist practice, is a fact that paradoxically has been both documented and ignored. Months ago I provided an extensive review of the role of the mainstream media, led by Al Jazeera, as well as the seeding of social media, in creating the African mercenary myth. Among the departures from the norm of vilifying Sub-Saharan Africans and black Libyans that instead documented the abuse of these civilians, were the Los Angeles Times, Human Rights Watch which found no evidence of any mercenaries at all in eastern Libya (totally contradicting the claims presented as truth by Al Arabiya and The Telegraph, among others such as TIME and The Guardian).''     SOURCE:     COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUST 2011   http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/       [47]     AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA   http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-4368-8537-03f1bb15a051/mde190362011en.pdf       [48]     SEE NOTE 35     [49]         LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time     BBC WHAT DOES GADDAFI'S DEATH MEAN FOR AFRICA 21 OCTOBER 2011   http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15392189     [50]       LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011   http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time     [51]     HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH TUNISIA: DON'T EXTRADITE FORMER PRIME MINISTER TO LIBYA 9 NOVEMBER 2011   http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/09/tunisia-don-t-extradite-former-prime-minister-libya