Death of Gaddafi/The National Transitional Council's bloody path
DEATH OF GADDAFI/THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL COUNCIL'S BLOODY PATH ''Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. '' Article 10, Universal Declaration of Human Rights http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Language.aspx?LangID=eng ''''It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat '' Article 2, Basic rules of International Humanitarian Law in armed conflicts http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm The prohibition on executions without trial [summary executions] AND the obligation to treat prisoners of war humanely is confirmed by article 3, 3th Geneva Convention http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/375?OpenDocument INTRODUCTION: After 42 years the dictatorship of Gaddafi has come to an end However, the new rulers don't deserve any benefit of the doubt They didn't trust on the strength of the Libyan people and made alliance with the NATO which only serve Western interests With a pro Western regime, the Libyan people can forget any real independence and social advancement Regarding human rights they made a bloody beginning with the apparent extrajudicial execution of Gaddafi and his son Mutassim Prisoners have been tortured and humiliated There are vehement racist attacks on African migrant workers and black Libyans When the situation stays this and those responsible for torture and violence don't face prosecution, the former Gaddafi dictatorship will be followed by a next one Dear Editor and readers, Friday 21 october the world learnt, that former president Muammar Gaddafi, who had ruled Libya for 42 years, had died  Although the new rulers, the National Transitial Council, claimed, that Gaddafi was killed in a crossfire, soon news was spread, that he was extrajudicially executed, which was confirmed by video's  The video images were barbaric and the public exposure of the bodies of Gaddafi, his son Mutassim and his Defence minister Abu Bakr Younis, were a shame and a disgrace and against International Humanitarian Law And moreover a huge violation of Islamic burial rules, which commands a burial within a day. The bodies were disposed to the public for four days!  But that is not all When Gaddafi were alive when imprisoned and therefore was a POW [prisoner of war], his execution was a war crime According to International Humanitarian Law, article 2 and the 3th Geneva Convention [regarding the treatment of prisoners of war], article 3, it is strictly forbidden to kill someone, who has surrendered Also it is an international obligation to treat prisoners of war humanely  Moreover, in International Law any human being has a right to a fair and independent trial In the case of Gaddafi it was a trial before the International Criminal Court, which had ordered arrest warrants against him, his son Saif al-Islam and the Intelligence chief Abdullah al-Sanussi His son Saif al-Islam has been arrested by the National Transitional Council at 19 november Two days later, Gaddafi's Intelligence Chief, Abdullah al-Sanussi, were also arrested Both men are wanted by the ICC on charges of crimes against humanity for their roles in attacks on civilians, including peaceful demonstrators, in Tripoli, Benghazi, Misrata, and other Libyan cities and towns after the start of anti-government protests in eastern Libya on February 15  The call for an investigation after the circumstances of the death of Gaddafi sounded from the very beginning from the side of the UN and human rights organisations Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch  Autopsy showed, that he is killed by a shot in the head and the National Transitional Council has not only ordered an investigation, but also declared, that those responsible for the death of Gaddafi, will be prosecuted  His son Mutassim died under the same suspect circumstances Video images show, that he was still alive, when imprisoned He was interrogated and a time later he was shot  Guess who is responsible..................... GADDAFI IS DEAD THE DEAD CAN'T TALK The barbaric executions of Gaddafi and his son at the hands of the rebels don't come as a suprise From the beginning of the uprise, the rebels have committed warcrimes and human rights violations like the mistreatment and humiliation of prisoners and racist attacks on African migrant workers and black Libyans, on the pretext, that they were ''mercenaries'' of Gaddafi This was reported by Human Rights and Amnesty International  After the fall of Sirte Human Rights Watch team found the dead bodies of 53 pro Gaddafi fighters in a hotel Apparently they were extrajudicially killed  GADDAFI'S DEATH A RELIEF TO THE WEST THE DEAD CAN'T TALK ''If he had been brought to trial for his crimes he would have been able to mention all the help he received from Western intelligence services who rendered opponents to his torture chambers or the London School of Economics that helped rehabilitate his image and that of his family's regime.'' http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26466 The big question is, whether the extrajudicial execution of Gaddafi was pure revenge or to silence him For Gaddafi knew too much As the former Western allies of Gaddafi [since 11 september 2001], as those members of the National Transitional Council, who had belonged to the former Gaddafi regime would have been seriously embarrassed, when Gaddafi had been brought for the International Criminal Court  For except the dirty deal he and his former friend, the ex Italian prime minister Berlusconi had closed in order to prevent refugees to come to Europe , there were more shady things A number of Western States, especially the US and Great Britain deported real or alleged terrorsuspects to Libya by means of rendition flghts and in Libya they were tortured. Human Rights Watch has systematically reported this and protested against those practices  As well as the US and British Intelligence Services cooperated closely with Gaddafi and informed him about the Libyan opposition  A number of members of the National Transitional Council are former high officials of the Gaddafi regime. They would not be happy either with a living Gaddafi, who could tell about their dirty practices  The Gaddafi deals with the Western rulers and the ex ties of some members of the NTC [National Transitional Council] are no secret Otherwise I could not write about it However, there are always certain secret details, which must be secret to all the parties involved. Undoubtedly Gaddafi would have revealed them if he were brought for the ICC But dead men can't talk So Gaddafi took al his secrets to his grave in the desert......... SINCE 11 SEPTEMBER 2001 GADDAFI AS AN ALLY IN THE ''WAR ON TERROR'' GADDAFI'S DIRTY DEALS WITH THE WEST There were a lot of things the West would rather not seen revealed, when Gaddafi brought to trial. Since 11 september 2001, Gaddafi, who was a yearlong enemy of the US because of his real or alleged ties with ''terrorism'' , had offered himself to the West as an ally in the socalled ''war on terror'' Consequences of that new ''friendship'' were the close tie with former colonial power Italy Gaddafi made a dirty deal with former prime minister Berlusconi to prevent refugees to come to Europe  So Gaddafi became EU's strong man, protecting Fortress Europe  US and European countries like Great Britain could make a use of Gaddafi's torturerooms by deporting real or alleged terrorsuspects to Libya on rendition flights Often those prisoners were first tortured by the CIA  Understandably some members of the National Transitional Council [at first high members of the Gaddafi regime] don't want their acts to be exposed either  CHARACTER OF THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL COUNCIL ''The former rebels form a heterogeneous group of strongly diverting political and ethnic origins. Various former Qadhafi officials joined the opposition either out of opportunism or in search of power conservation.  But also Islamist factions play a role in the former rebels For example, the leader of the Military Council in Tripoli is Abdelhakim Belhadj, an Afghanistan veteran and leader of the Al Qaida linked LIFG (Libyan Islamic Fighters Group).  The leader of the Cynically enough Belhadj was extradited to Libya by the CIA in 2004, and was then tortured before he was released by an amnesty measure in 2010  The uprising was of course legitimate as a resistance against the 42 years bloody dictatorship of the Gaddafi regime However, the resistance was soon captured by former Gaddafi high officials, who only wanted a regime change and despite resistance of other rebel factions appealed to Western military support  Any authentic resistance died, since Western interests were at stake now GADDAFI AND THE WEST THE FAIRY TALE OF THE ALTRUISTIC NATO SUPPORT Writer of this article and others have mentioned from the beginning, that the NATO help had nothing to do with real concern for the Libyan people, but stems purely from economic and neo colonial hegenomistic interests  We have emphasized, that the Libyan resistance should rely on own strength  Altruistic Western help is a fairy tale, bought by naive people, but the Western/ NATO history tells a whole different story. Take for example the NATO bombings in the Kosovo war, with many civilian death and as result of the war and the ethnic cleansings of 200 000 Serbs and Roma which have been bagatellised by the West  Two of NATO coutries, the US and Great Britain, which fullfilled the role of socalled ''benefactors'' are responsible for the military attacks and occupations of Afghanistan and Iraq, which caused thousands of civilian deaths by the use of clusterboms and munitions  The idea, that in Libya it would go otherwise is pure nonsense and a bad fairy tale for children The death of many Libyan civilians, caused by NATO bombings proved that  There are always naive souls, who believe in the sudden ''goodness'' of the West. In this case, their ranks were joined by socalled leftist progessive persons, who should have known better  They were wrong, as the horrible developements in Libya proved But what exactly were the Western motives to get rid of Gaddafi? GADDAFI AND THE WEST WESTERN MOTIVES FOR A REGIME CHANGE Why the West wanted a regime change in Libya, while Gaddafi was doing the dirty work as a ''trusted'' ally and the oildeals were satisfactory?  Of course he WAS reliable, but in the eyes of the West he stayed an unpredictable leader. By supporting the rebellion against him, more reliable pro Western figures could be brought to power That was the West's way to control the Arab spring better and to prevent fundamental changes, at least in Libya. There were economic interests to protect NATO SUPPORT COMES WITH A PRIZE The West had its reason to promote a regime change That's an explanation why the peace proposals of the AU [African Union] and the Venezuelan president Chavez [accepted by the Gaddafi regime], have been rejected by the NATO and the rebels  But for Western help is a prize to be paid and the prize is bitter for the Libyan people, who didn't ask for this intervention The West certainly is no friend of the Libyans and only serve its own interests However, the rebels, who thank their power to the NATO help, gladly pay the prize, guaranteeing profitable oilcontracts HELP NATO AFTER GARANTEEING THE OILCONTRACTS ''The West doesn’t have any altruistic aims. It wants to secure oil and business contracts under any new regime and ensure that its economic power in the region is unthreatened. '' http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24186 This quote reveals excellently the NATO political and military role By the ''successful'' NATO military intervention, the prize for the rebels is controlling the country But not after the promise, that the Western oil deals are guaranteed THIS WAS THE CONDITION UNDER WHICH NATO HELP WAS GIVEN  With the humanitarian card [Responsibility to protect, the ''good'' West against the ''evil'' Gaddafi] the NATO and its gang sold the military intervention to the world But as always, hegemonistic and economical interests were the real reason NATO INTERVENTION IN LIBYA It is obvious, that Gaddafi has led a dictatorship, which is responsible for many human rights violations As well during his reign as the uprising of the rebels  But also the NATO ''liberators'' and the rebels have blood on their hands THE BLOODY HANDS OF THE NATO ''Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants in order to
spare civilian population and property. Neither the civilian population as such nor civilian persons shall be the
object of attack. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives.''
Article 7, Internationaal Humanitarian Law
Eager to overthrow the Gaddafi regime, NATO bombed military targets without
any consideration with nearby civilian goals.
Many military targets are located in the vicinity of residential areas.
Especially residential area Bab al-Aziziya, where Gaddafi lived, was target again and again.
According to the Bishop of Tripoli many civilians were killed Bombing military targets, which are in the vicinity of civilian goals [like residential areas] is a great risk, since it is very difficult to protect civilians When civilians are killed or injured anyway, it is a warcrime, since according International Humanitarian Law a strict distinction must be made between combatants [military and fighters] and non-combatants [civilians]  Therefore it is of great importance, that the Public Procesutor of the ICC, Moreno Ocampo, has announced to investigate real or alleged NATO and rebel warcrimes  THE REBEL ''LIBERATORS'' OF LIBYA HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND WARCRIMES MISTREATMENTS/EXECUTIONS OF PRISONERS Despite the allegations of the [former] rebels, to fight for ''democracy'', ''justice'' and to uphold human rights, they have a very poor human rights record concerning their warfare and treatment of prisoners [of war]. At least hundred gangs of rebelmilitia, from Misrata and the Nasufa Mountains  have made themselves guilty of arbitrary arrests, mistreatments and torture of imprisoned pro Gaddafi fighters Other atrocities were extrajudicial executions, rapes, lootings and burnings of houses, belonging to real or alleged Gaddafi supporters It concerns thousands of prisoners, at least 2500 held in Tripoli and 1100 in Misrata. According to Amnesty International also children are detained. Human Rights Watch team found the bodies of 53 killed apparent Gaddafi supporters at an abandoned hotel in Sirte, who apparently were extrajudicially executed Ssome had their hands bound behind their backs when they were shot, according to Mr Peter Bouckaert, emergencies director at Human Rights Watch, who investigated the killings  REBELS WAR CRIMES FOR WHAT THE WEST TURNS A BLIND EYE RACIST ATTACKS ON AFRICAN MIGRANTS AND BLACK LIBYANS ''One hospitalized Tawergha told Human Rights Watch how he was shot in the side and leg and abandoned to die near Hun: “They left us at the edge of the road, put a blanket over us and then started swearing, ‘You are dogs, hope you die.’” Source: http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/28/murder-brigades-misrata The human rights violations and warcrimes, which the rebels committed are horrible and in that the difference between them and the pro Gaddafi troops is not so big HOWEVER, STILL MORE DANGEROUS IS THE RACIST CHARACTER OF THE REBEL CRIMES For African migrant workers from countries like Chad, Sudan and Mali, as well black Libyans [descendents of former black slaves] have been tortured, humiliated, raped and extrajudicially executed under the pretext, that they were ''mercenaries'' of Gaddafi For those allegations hardly any serious evidence has been found ] BUT EVEN IF IT WERE SO, FACT STAYS, THAT PEOPLE ARE BEING ARRESTED, PERSECUTED, HUMILIATED, TORTURED AND EXTRAJUDICIALLY EXECUTED BECAUSE OF THE COLOUR OF THEIR SKIN  ETHNIC CLEANSINGS: Rebels have also committed ethnic cleansings A horrifying example is the town of Tawergha Due to the terror of Misrata militia brigades [beatings, shootings of unarmed citizens, setting houses aflame, arbitrary arrests, deaths in detention] the entire town [of mainly black citizens] has fled to the Juffra region [South of Misrata] This was exactly the meaning, since militia commanders have declared that the Tawerghans should never return  In the book of the Misrata militia brigades all citizens of Tawergha are held responsible for real or alleged atrocities of some ''mercenaries'' This terror against black African migrant workers and black Libyans was there since the beginning of the uprising against Gaddafi and is silenced by Western press  Now these atrocities go from bad to worse and can be compared with real pogroms, it is finally noticed by the press  Also the press had a bad responsibility in spreading the myth of the ''black mercenaries'' without substantial evidence Especially Al Jazeera, which has lost its progessive character, was guilty of spreading those dangerous fairy tales  The National Transitional Council has condemned those atrocities and said to Amnesty International, that it will restore law as soon as possible  However, as the official Libyan authorities, the NTC is responsible for the militia atrocities They are obliged to investigate them and bring the abusive members of the militia to Court. Also the NATO, which played the main part in supporting the rebels and so bringing the NTC to power, bears a big responsibility IT IS THE OBLIGATION OF THE NTC TO PROTECT ALL INHABITANTS OF LIBYA FROM HARM, REGARDLESS STATUS OR DESCENT' IT'S THE OBLIBATION, UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW, OF THE REBEL MILITIA TO TREAT ALL PRISONERS THEY HAVE UNDER CONTROL, HUMANELY THAT APPLIES ALSO FOR THE NTC, OF COURSE EPILOGUE Gaddafi has led a dictatorship and is responsible for a great number of human rights violations and warcrimes  However, its not a bagatellisation of his atrocities to mention, that the Libyan people's standard of living is among the top in Africa. Also he supported freedom movements like the ANC, in the time that the West considered it as a terroristic organisation  The struggled resistance against the Gaddafi dictatorship was legitimate and could have become a great succes, but has ended in a great political and humanitarian drama Politically, since resistance didn't trust on own strength, but on Western intervention, which only serves its own, neocolonialistic interests A humanitarian debacle, since the rebel militia have used the same atrocities, which made Gaddafi a feared leader, partly because of the presence of former Gaddafi officials Those atrocities also show an ugly racist card, which can cause tension with African countries Chaos is in the country, since the NTC, which is divided over maintainance of human rights, seems to have little control over a number of militia Then we still have the rival ethnic groups that could cause conflict in post Qadhafi Libya and we can not rule out that supporters of the former leader will take up armed resistance.  The NTC will be a willing tool for Western hegemony and considering its bloody start, it is to be feared, that the situation will be not much better than under the former Gaddafi regime  The only hope is, that a real resistance will stand up, challenging Western influence and their NTC servants Fighting for economical independence, social justice and based on Freedom, Brotherhood, Equality and Human Rights for all its inhabitants, regardless status or race Only then, Libya will be really free Kind greetings Astrid Essed Amsterdam The Netherlands  AL JAZEERA MUAMMAR GADDAFI KILLED AS SIRTE FALLS 21 OCTOBER 2011 http://aljazeera.com/news/africa/2011/10/20111020111520869621.html THE GUARDIAN GADDAFI KILLED AS SIRTE FALLS 21 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/middle-east-live/2011/oct/20/gaddafi-killed-sirte-falls-live  WARNING BLOODY PICTURES DAILY MAIL GADDAFI DEAD VIDEO: DICTATOR BEGS FOR LIFE BEFORE SUMMARY EXECUTION http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2051361/GADDAFI-DEAD-VIDEO-Dictator-begs-life-summary-execution.html BBC GADDAFI DEATH: THE BLOODY BIRTH OF A NEW LIBYA 22 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15416019  WARNING BLOODY PICTURES DAILY MAIL GADDAFI DEAD VIDEO: DICTATOR BEGS FOR LIFE BEFORE SUMMARY EXECUTION http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2051361/GADDAFI-DEAD-VIDEO-Dictator-begs-life-summary-execution.html EXPOSURE OF GADDAFI'S BODY/FOUR DAYS Not only humiliating, but against Islamic burial rules, that demand, that a dead body must be buried within a day THE INDEPENDENT LIBYA ENDS PUBLIC SHOWING OF GADDAFI'S BODY 25 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/libya-ends-public-showing-of-gaddafis-body-2375357.htm REUTERS
LIBYA ENDS PUBLIC SHOWING OF GADDAFI'S BODY
24 OCTOBER 2011
INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS VIEW ABOUT THE PUBLIC EXPOSURE OF DEAD BODIES Over the past few days, people with their hands tied have been put on display on vehicles, interrogations of detainees have been filmed by local media, and mortal remains have been exposed to public curiosity...
Our view of these issues is based on the applicable rules of international humanitarian law, for which we endeavour to ensure respect.'' SOURCE:
INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS
LIBYA: DETAINEES AND THE DEAD MUST BE RESPECTED
27 OCTOBER 2011
GADDAFI BURIED IN SECRET DESERT LOCATION
25 OCTOBER 2011
 ARTICLE 3, 3TH GENEVA CONVENTION HUMANE TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF WARAND PROHIBITION TO KILL A PRISONER OF WAR ''(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely,....... .......................................................... ''To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:
(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;
..................................... ..................................... http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/375?OpenDocument See also www.icrc.org ARTICLE 1 AND 2, BASIC RULES OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW IN ARMED CONFLICTS 1 - Persons hors de combatand those who do not take a direct part in hostilities are entitled to respect for their
lives and their moral and physical integrity. They shall in all circumstances be protected and treated humanely
without any adverse distinction.
2 - It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat.
 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: Q AND A ON THE ARREST AND SURRENDER OF THE THREE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT SUSPECTS 26 AUGUST 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/26/libya-qa-arrest-and-surrender-three-international-criminal-court-suspects AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL ICC MUST END CONFUSION OVER TRIAL OF GADDAFI 24 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/icc-must-end-confusion-over-trial-gaddafi-2011-11 INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT COURSE OF ACTION BEFORE THE ICC FOLLOWING THE ARREST OF THE SUSPECT SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI IN LIBYA 23 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/exeres/48F6B130-EC14-4A51-BC79-1CCF8633E270.htm THE GUARDIAN SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI CAPTURED IN LYBYA DESERT AS HE TRIES TO FLEE COUNTRY 19 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/19/saif-al-islam-gaddafi-capture-libya HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: SURRENDER SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI TO ICC 19 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/19/libya-surrender-saif-al-islam-gaddafi-icc AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL LIBYA: TRANSFER SAIF AL-ISLAM TO THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT 19 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/libya-transfer-saif-al-islam-international-criminal-2011-11-19 THE GUARDIAN GADDAFI'S INTELLIGENCE CHIEF CAPTURED IN SOUTHERN DISTRICT 20 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/20/gaddafi-son-pretended-camel-herder HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: REPORTED CAPTURE OF ABDULLAH SANUSSI 20 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/20/libya-reported-capture-abdullah-sanussi  CNN UN CALLS FOR GADHAFI DEATH INVESTIGATION 21 OCTOBER 2011 http://edition.cnn.com/2011/10/21/world/africa/libya-main/ HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: INVESTIGATE DEATHS OF GADDAFI AND SON 22 OCTOBER 2011 ''However, information obtained by Human Rights Watch, as well as videos and photographs apparently taken that day showing both men alive in the custody of anti-Gaddafi forces, indicate that they might have been executed after being detained.'' SOURCE: http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/22/libya-investigate-deaths-gaddafi-and-son AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL LIBYA URGED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER AL-GADDAFI DEATH WAS A WAR CRIME 21 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/libya-urged-investigate-whether-al-gaddafi-death-was-war-crime-2011-10-21 TIME WORLD AUTOPSY SHOWS GADDAFI KILLED BY SHOT TO HEAD 23 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2097580,00.html INDIA TODAY MUAMMAR GADDAFI WAS SHOT IN THE HEAD: AUTOPSY 23 OCTOBER 2011 http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/muammar-gaddafi-shot-dead-autopsy/1/157280.html  TIME WORLD AUTOPSY SHOWS GADDAFI KILLED BY SHOT TO HEAD 23 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2097580,00.html INDIA TODAY MUAMMAR GADDAFI WAS SHOT IN THE HEAD: AUTOPSY 23 OCTOBER 2011 http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/muammar-gaddafi-shot-dead-autopsy/1/157280.html THE GUARDIAN LIBYA BOWS TO CALLS FOR INVESTIGATION INTO GADDAFI DEATH 25 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/24/libya-investigation-gaddafi-death THE GUARDIAN GADDAFI KILLER FACES PROSECUTION, SAYS LIBYAN INTERIM GOVERNMENT 27 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/27/gaddafi-killers-face-prosecution-libya BBC THE GADDAFI FAMILY TREE http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12531442  HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: INVESTIGATE DEATHS OF GADDAFI AND SON 22 OCTOBER 2011 ''However, information obtained by Human Rights Watch, as well as videos and photographs apparently taken that day showing both men alive in the custody of anti-Gaddafi forces, indicate that they might have been executed after being detained.'' SOURCE: http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/22/libya-investigate-deaths-gaddafi-and-son ''Videos also emerged showing the Colonel’s son Mu’tassim al-Gaddafi, also captured yesterday, lying on a bed in what appears to be a private residence. Wearing a bloodied T-shirt, he bore a neck injury but seemed to be conscious and aware of his surroundings. Later footage showed his lifeless body on a hospital bed. His death should also be independently investigated.'' SOURCE: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL LIBYA URGED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER AL-GADDAFI DEATH WAS A WAR CRIME 21 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/libya-urged-investigate-whether-al-gaddafi-death-was-war-crime-2011-10-21
 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: CEASE ARBITRARY ARRESTS, ABUSE OF DETAINEES 30 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/30/libya-cease-arbitrary-arrests-abuse-detainees HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: STOP ARBITRARY ARRESTS OF BLACK AFRICANS 4 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/04/libya-stop-arbitrary-arrests-black-africans AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST IN LIBYA 7 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-reprisals-and-arbitrary-arrest-libya-2011-09-07  HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS 24 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-supporters  ''If he had been brought to trial for his crimes he would have been able to mention all the help he received from Western intelligence services who rendered opponents to his torture chambers or the London School of Economics that helped rehabilitate his image and that of his family's regime.'' SOURCE: THE SOCIALIST WORKER GADDAFI'S DEATH IS RELIEF FOR WEST 22 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26466 ''"When a person is shot in the head it is obviously done to simply eliminate him under common accord of several parties involved. They include the so-called rebels led by NATO and the alliance members. Three of them were especially interested in keeping Gaddafi’s mouth shut at the Libyan People’s Court that may be judging the Colonel as it was proposed by Medvedev. They are France, the US and the UK. The Hussein trial showed that doing the same thing with Gaddafi could be a dangerous weapon and the Colonel had a lot to say." SOURCE: THE VOICE OF RUSSIA GADDAFI'S DEATH - PURE ACCIDENT: THE WEST 22 OCTOBER 2011 http://english.ruvr.ru/2011/10/22/59176785.html  ''"Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and Mu`ammar al-Gaddafi are building their friendship agreement at the expense of people from other countries whom both regard as expendable," said Bill Frelick, refugee policy director at Human Rights Watch. "It looks less like friendship and more like a dirty deal to enable Italy to dump migrants and asylum seekers on Libya and evade its obligations." SOURCE: HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH ITALY/LIBYA: GADDAFI VISIT CELEBRATES DIRTY DEAL 9 JUNE 2009 http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/09/italylibya-gaddafi-visit-celebrates-dirty-deal  HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS 8 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition-details HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH OFF THE RECORD: US RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENFORCED DISSAPEARANCES IN THE ''WAR ON TERROR'' http://www.hrw.org/legacy/backgrounder/usa/ct0607/ct0607web.pdf HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA/US: INVESTIGATE DEATH OF FORMER CIA PRISONER 11 MAY 2009 http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/05/11/libyaus-investigate-death-former-cia-prisoner HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH UK: TORTURE A RISK IN LIBYA DEPORTATION ACCORD 17 OCTOBER 2005 http://www.hrw.org/news/2005/10/17/uk-torture-risk-libya-deportation-accord HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH US: STOP DETAINEE'S RETURN TO TORTURE IN LIBYA 14 JUNI 2005 http://www.hrw.org/news/2007/06/14/us-stop-detainee-s-return-torture-libya  HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS 8 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition-details ''However, her reference to widespread concern about wrong judgments is likely to be seized on by critics of the way Britain's intelligence agencies co-operated closely with Gaddafi's regime over the "rendition" of dissidents and terror suspects after the Libyan dictator agreed to abandon his chemical and nuclear weapons programme in 2003.'' SOURCE: THE GUARDIAN EX MI5 CHIEF'S GADDAFI REGIME RENDITION FEARS 7 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/global/2011/sep/07/mi5-chief-gaddafi-regime-rendition-fears THE SOCIALIST WORKER BRITAIN AND LIBYA: TORTURED FRIENDS 10 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25973 THE SOCIALIST WORKER LINKING MI 16, BP, LSE AND LIBYA 10 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25975  ''The former rebels form a heterogeneous group of strongly diverting political and ethnic origins. Various former Qadhafi officials joined the opposition either out of opportunism or in search of power conservation. SOURCE: LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time  BBC MUAMMAR GADDAFI ''BURIED IN DESERT GRAVE AT DAWN'' 25 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15441867 THE DAILY TELEGRAPH LIBYA: GADDAFI BURIED AT DAWN IN SECRET DESERT GRAVE AS LINE IS DRAWN UNDER 42 YEARS RULE 25 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8848866/Libya-Gaddafi-buried-at-dawn-in-secret-desert-grave-as-line-is-drawn-under-42-year-rule.html BBC THE GADDAFI FAMILY TREE http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12531442  AL JAZEERA OBITUARY: MUAMMAR GADDAFI 25 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/2011/10/20111020122439605285.html THE SOCIALIST WORKER THE MYTH OF GADDAFI THE RADICAL 3 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25853  HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH ITALY/LIBYA: GADDAFI VISIT CELEBRATES DIRTY DEAL 9 JUNE 2009 http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/09/italylibya-gaddafi-visit-celebrates-dirty-deal  FORTRESS EUROPE http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2006/02/immigrants-dead-at-frontiers-of-europe_16.html WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT FORTRESS EUROPE INCREASED INTEGRATION OF EU ASYLUM AND IMMIGRATION POLICY http://struggle.ws/wsm/pamphlets/eu/fortress.html  SEE NOTE 13  LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time THE GADDAFI REGIME IS FIGHTING A NATO BACKED WING OF ITSELF 29 APRIL 2011 http://www.stopwar.org.uk/index.php/middle-east-and-north-africa/465-gaddafi-regime-now-fighting-nato-backed-breakaway-wing-of-itself  SEE NOTE 21  LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time  SEE NOTES 11 TILL 14 SEE ALSO HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS 8 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition-details  THE GUARDIAN LIBYA IS UNITED IN POPULAR REVOLUTION-PLEASE DON'T INTERVENE MUHAMMAD MIN LIBYA 1 MARCH 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/mar/01/libya-revolution-no-fly-zone  COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUSTUS 2011 http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/ MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH ASTRID ESSED http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time PRESS COMMUNIQUE FROM VREDE [DUTCH WORD FOR PEACE] WZW MILITARY INTERVENTION IN LIBYA? NO THANKS! 10 MARCH 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2090-military-intervention-in-libya-no-thanks LUDO DE BRABANDER MILITARY INTERVENTION AND LIBYA 9 MARCH 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2089-military-intervention-and-libya THE SOCIALIST WORKER WESTERN INTERVENTION IN LIBYA MEANS DEVASTATION AND WAR 26 MARCH 2011 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24282 THE SOCIALIST WORKER LIBYAN REVOLUTIONARIES SPEAK OUT: ''THE WEST'S WARMACHINE WON'T HELP US 5 MARCH 2011 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24090  MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH ASTRID ESSED http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php THE SOCIALIST WORKER WESTERN INTERVENTION IN LIBYA MEANS DEVASTATION AND WAR 26 MARCH 2011 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24282 COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUST 2011 http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/ THE SOCIALIST WORKER LIBYAN REVOLUTIONARIES SPEAK OUT: ''THE WEST'S WARMACHINE WON'T HELP US 5 MARCH 2011 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24090  WIKIPEDIA THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War#The_NATO_bombing_campaign SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA KOSOVO WAR http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL NATO VIOLATIONS OF THE LAWS OF WAR DURING OPERATION ALLIED FORCE MUST BE INVESTIGATED JUNE 2000 http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/EUR70/025/2000/en/b2d0e225-df0f-11dd-953e-5fb92c895266/eur700252000en.html ''The Serbian government and a number of international pressure groups (e.g. Amnesty International) claimed that NATO had carried out war crimes during the conflict, notably the bombing of the Serbian TV headquarters in Belgrade on April 23, 1999, where 16 people were killed and 16 more were injured. Sian Jones of Amnesty stated, "The bombing of the headquarters of Serbian state radio and television was a deliberate attack on a civilian object and as such constitutes a war crime".'' SOURCE WIKIPEDIA THE KOSOVO WAR http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War ''And at the conclusion of the war 200,000 Serbs and Roma were ethnically cleansed by the western-backed Kosovo Liberation Army--creating a virtually monoethnic Kosovo. '' SOURCE: THE SOCIALIST REVIEW WHAT WAS IT GOOD FOR? MAY 2003 http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=8435 THE SOCIALIST REVIEW KOSOVO: THE MYTH OF LIBERATION APRIL 2004 http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=8836  MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH ASTRID ESSED http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php  ''A no-fly-zone was installed in the name of protecting civilians that rapidly grew into a bombing campaign which always causes innocent civilian victims. Don't these deaths fall in the category of war crime?'' SOURCE: LUDO DE BRABANDER RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT 19 MAY 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2121-responsibility-to-protect- '' A Nato air strike hit a civilian house in Tripoli and killed nine residents, the Libyan regime said yesterday. Nato admitted on Sunday that its weapons destroyed a house in Tripoli in an incident likely to sow new doubts inside the alliance about its mission in Libya.''
SOURCE: THE DAILY MAIL NATO BOMB ''KILL NINE LIBYAN CIVILIANS'' A STRAY AIRSTRIKE IS BLAMED ON ''SYSTEM FAILURE'' 20 JUNE 2011 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2005472/Libya-War-Nato-bomb-kills-9-civilians-Tripoli-stray-air-strike-blamed-failure.html THE WASHINGTON POST NATO CONFIRMS STRIKE HIT WRONG TARGET, KILLING LIBYAN CIVILIANS http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle-east/nato-says-strike-may-have-killed-libyan-civilians/2011/06/19/AGL7VdbH_story.html THE GUARDIAN TRIPOLI AIRSTRIKE KILLED 40 CIVILIANS, CLAIMS VATICAN OFFICIAL 31 MARCH 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/31/tripoli-air-strikes-killed-civilians BBC LIBYA SAYS NATO AIR RAIDS ''KILLED 700 CIVILIANS'' 31 MAY 2011 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13611132 REUTERS TRIPOLI SAYS NATO STRIKE KILLS DOZENS OF CIVILIANS 9 AUGUST 2011 http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/09/us-libya-idUSTRE76Q76620110809 THE NEW YORK TIMES NATO STRIKES AT LIBYA STATE TV 30 JULY 2011 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/31/world/africa/31tripoli.html?_r=1 CNN BROTHER OF LIBYA'S INFORMATION MINISTER REPORTED KILLED IN NATO STRIKE 19 AUGUST 2011 http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/08/18/libya.war/ BBC WHAT REALLY HAPPENED IN LIBYA'S ZLITAN 11 AUGUST 2011 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14486170 THE DAILY MAIL BOMBS HIT GADDAFI HOME: NATO STRIKES KILL SON AND THREE GRANDCHILDREN.........BUT TYRANT NARROWLY ESCAPES UNHARMED 1 MAY 2011 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1382341/Libya-Nato-strikes-kill-Gaddafis-son-grandchildren.html FAIR LIBYAN DEATHS, MEDIA SILENCE 18 AUGUST 2011 http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=4379  JUAN LA COLE AN OPEN LETTER TO THE LEFT ON LIBYA 27 MARCH 2011 http://www.juancole.com/2011/03/an-open-letter-to-the-left-on-libya.html  THE DIRTY WORK GADDAFI DID FOR THE WEST SEE NOTES 11 TILL 14  THE INDEPENDENT LIBYAN REBELS REJECT AFRICAN UNION PEACE PLAN 11 APRIL 2011 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/libyan-rebels-reject-african-union-peace-plan-2266294.htm THE GUARDIAN LIBYAN REBELS REJECT CHAVEZ MEDIATION OFFER 3 MARCH 2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/03/libyan-rebels-reject-hugo-chavez COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUSTUS 2011 http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/ BBC WHAT DOES GADDAFI'S DEATH MEAN FOR AFRICA 21 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15392189  THE NEW YORK TIMES THE SCRAMBLE FOR ACCESS TO LIBYA OIL WEALTH HAS BEGUN 22 AUGUSTUS 2011 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/business/global/the-scramble-for-access-to-libyas-oil-wealth-begins.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all FINANCIAL TIMES REBELS VOW TO OPEN UP LIBYA FOR INVESTMENT 15 JUNI 2011 http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/b97dd138-976d-11e0-af13-00144feab49a.html#axzz1bqUQDRC8 THE SOCIALIST WORKER OIL FIRMS HIT THE JACKPOT IN LIBYA 1 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26215 LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBIE: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time  WARNING BLOODY PICTURES HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: EVIDENCE SUGGESTS KHAMIS BRIGADE KILLED 45 DETAINEES 29 AUGUSTUS 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/29/libya-evidence-suggests-khamis-brigade-killed-45-detainees HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: WARRANTS SEND STRONG MESSAGE TO ABUSIVE LEADERS 27 JUNI 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/06/27/libya-warrants-send-strong-message-abusive-leaders HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: Q&A ON THE ARREST AND SURRENDER OF THE THREE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT SUSPECTS 26 AUGUSTUS 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/26/libya-qa-arrest-and-surrender-three-international-criminal-court-suspects HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: GOVERNMENT USE OF LANDMINES CONFIRMED 30 MAART 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/03/30/libya-government-use-landmines-confirmed AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL NO PLACE OF SAFETY CIVILIANS IN LIBYA UNDER ATTACK 13 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/027/2011/en/12c2a4e5-6c0e-4c90-b32c-5e95ff133581/mde190272011en.pdf  NATO WAR CRIMES IN LIBYA SEE NOTE 30 SEE FURTHER: EURONEWS TRIPOLI BISHOP SAYS DOZEN OF CIVILIANS KILLED IN WESTERN AIRSTRIKES 31 MARCH 2011 http://www.euronews.net/2011/03/31/tripoli-bishop-says-dozens-of-civilians-killed-in-western-air-strikes/ ''A no-fly-zone was installed in the name of protecting civilians that rapidly grew into a bombing campaign which always causes innocent civilian victims. Don't these deaths fall in the category of war crime? '' SOURCE: LUDO DE BRABANDER RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT 19 MAY 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2121-responsibility-to-protect- SEE ALSO NOTE 30  ''Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants in order to
spare civilian population and property. Neither the civilian population as such nor civilian persons shall be the
object of attack. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives.''
Artikel 7, Internationaal Humanitair Oorlogsrecht
3 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.rnw.nl/english/bulletin/icc-investigate-natos-libyan-operation THE TELEGRAPH LIBYA: NATO TO BE INVESTIGATED BY ICC FOR WARCRIMES 2 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8866007/Libya-Nato-to-be-investigated-by-ICC-for-war-crimes.html  BACKGROUND] MISRATA AND NASUFA MOUNTAINS As well in Misrata as in the Nasufa Mountains, indiscriminate attacks of pro Gaddafi troops took place See Misrata http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/04/17/libya-indiscriminate-attacks-kill-civilians Nasufa Mountains http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/05/09/libya-end-indiscriminate-attacks-western-mountain-towns  WARCRIMES OF THE REBELS TREATMENT OF PRISONERS HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS 24 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-supporters HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS 24 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-supporters AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-4368-8537-03f1bb15a051/mde190362011en.pdf AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: CEASE ARBITRARY ARRESTS, ABUSE OF DETAINEES 30 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/30/libya-cease-arbitrary-arrests-abuse-detainees HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH THE MURDER BRIGADES OF MISRATA 28 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/28/murder-brigades-misrata  RADIO NETHERLANDS WORLDWIDE HRW: NO MERCENARIES IN EASTERN LIBYA 2 MARCH 2011 http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/hrw-no-mercenaries-eastern-libya-0 ''The “African mercenary” myth, as put into deadly, racist practice, is a fact that paradoxically has been both documented and ignored. Months ago I provided an extensive review of the role of the mainstream media, led by Al Jazeera, as well as the seeding of social media, in creating the African mercenary myth. Among the departures from the norm of vilifying Sub-Saharan Africans and black Libyans that instead documented the abuse of these civilians, were the Los Angeles Times, Human Rights Watch which found no evidence of any mercenaries at all in eastern Libya (totally contradicting the claims presented as truth by Al Arabiya and The Telegraph, among others such as TIME and The Guardian).'' SOURCE COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUSTUS 2011 http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/  WARCRIMES OF THE REBELS POGROMS AGAINST AFRICAN MIGRANT WORKERS AND BLACK LIBYANS [DESCENTS OF FORMER SLAVES] HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: STOP ARBITRARY ARRESTS OF BLACK AFRICANS 4 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/04/libya-stop-arbitrary-arrests-black-africans AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-4368-8537-03f1bb15a051/mde190362011en.pdf HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: MILITIAS TERRORIZING RESIDENTS OF ''LOYALIST'' TOWN 30 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/30/libya-militias-terrorizing-residents-loyalist-town '' But black Africans have also been rounded up as alleged mercenaries, on little or no evidence, without being given access to a lawyer. I saw several dozen of them today being driven through Tripoli, hands bound, blindfolded with cloths of Gaddafi green, in the back of trucks with welded-on anti-aircraft cannon and heavy machine guns.'' BBC GADDAFI DEATH: THE BLOODY BIRTH OF A NEW LIBYA 22 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15416019 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST IN LIBYA 7 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-reprisals-and-arbitrary-arrest-libya-2011-09-07 THE ECONOMIST LIBYA'S BLACK REFUGEES CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE 5 MAY 2011 http://www.economist.com/node/18652159?story_id=18652159 FORTRESS EUROPE REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT 19 MAY 2011 http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-rebels.html One Turkish construction worker told the BBC: "We had 70-80 people from Chad working for our company. They were cut dead with pruning shears and axes, attackers saying: 'You are providing troops for Gaddafi.' The Sudanese were also massacred. We saw it for ourselves."
Libya's new forces for change have simply picked up where the colonel left off his bloodletting.''
AFRICAN VIEWPOINT: COLONEL'S CONTINENT?
25 FEBRUARY 2011
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12585395 STR8TALK CHRONICLE
LIBYAN INSURGENTS KILL TWO NIGERIANS
19 MARCH 2011
http://str8talkchronicle.com/?p=13153 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25  HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH LIBYA: MILITIAS TERRORIZING RESIDENTS OF ''LOYALIST'' TOWN 30 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/30/libya-militias-terrorizing-residents-loyalist-town  FORTRESS EUROPE REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT 19 MAY 2011 http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-rebels.html One Turkish construction worker told the BBC: "We had 70-80 people from Chad working for our company. They were cut dead with pruning shears and axes, attackers saying: 'You are providing troops for Gaddafi.' The Sudanese were also massacred. We saw it for ourselves."
Libya's new forces for change have simply picked up where the colonel left off his bloodletting.''
AFRICAN VIEWPOINT: COLONEL'S CONTINENT?
25 FEBRUARY 2011
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12585395 STR8TALK CHRONICLE
LIBYAN INSURGENTS KILL TWO NIGERIANS
19 MARCH 2011
http://str8talkchronicle.com/?p=13153 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE 25 AUGUST 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST IN LIBYA 7 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-reprisals-and-arbitrary-arrest-libya-2011-09-07  FORTRESS EUROPE REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT 19 MAY 2011 http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-rebels.html  ''The “African mercenary” myth, as put into deadly, racist practice, is a fact that paradoxically has been both documented and ignored. Months ago I provided an extensive review of the role of the mainstream media, led by Al Jazeera, as well as the seeding of social media, in creating the African mercenary myth. Among the departures from the norm of vilifying Sub-Saharan Africans and black Libyans that instead documented the abuse of these civilians, were the Los Angeles Times, Human Rights Watch which found no evidence of any mercenaries at all in eastern Libya (totally contradicting the claims presented as truth by Al Arabiya and The Telegraph, among others such as TIME and The Guardian).'' SOURCE: COUNTERPUNCH THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA 31 AUGUST 2011 http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/  AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-4368-8537-03f1bb15a051/mde190362011en.pdf  SEE NOTE 35  LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time BBC WHAT DOES GADDAFI'S DEATH MEAN FOR AFRICA 21 OCTOBER 2011 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15392189  LUDO DE BRABANDER LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME 6 SEPTEMBER 2011 http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time  HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH TUNISIA: DON'T EXTRADITE FORMER PRIME MINISTER TO LIBYA 9 NOVEMBER 2011 http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/09/tunisia-don-t-extradite-former-prime-minister-libya